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Glossary - Study Manual

To find entry quickly, type word followed 
by colon [:]. Example, Demo:, Barrier: 
Use 'ENTER' or 'ALT S' keys  to find next.

What is given in this Glossary are the special meanings of the words as they are used in Clearbird's Study Manual. In addition to that the student needs to look the words up in a regular dictionary and go through all the steps of clearing a word.


Aberration: Irrational thought is called aberration. It originally means  "crooked line". Going from A to B becomes a complicated matter (see also 'Via').
Additive: A thing that has been added. This usually has a bad meaning in that an "additive" is said to be something needless or harmful which has been done in addition to standard procedure. "Additive" normally means a departure from standard procedure. 
In common English, it might mean a substance put into a compound to improve its qualities or suppress undesirable qualities. We use it to mean "adding" something to the technology or procedure resulting in undesirable results.
Affinity: Degree of closeness or liking of someone or something. Willingness to share the space with someone liked.

Degree of liking or affection or lack of it. Affinity is a tolerance of distance. A great affinity makes you feel 'close' to somebody or something. One's level of affinity is expressed on the so-called tone scale. This is an emotional scale. Some of the major steps are: Apathy, fear, anger, antagonism, boredom, conservatism, interest and enthusiasm. Apathy is the lowest affinity here. Enthusiasm the highest.

Alter-is: To change or falsify the way something actually is.
Application: Performing useful actions in the physical universe based on one's knowledge (noun).
Apply: To use something in a skilled way. Using application (verb).

1) A datum or action based on opinion, judgment, whim, personal interests, or taste; not on law or fact. (Latin: Judgment). 
2) Unreliable, false or twisted data.
This is why you backtrack difficulties in the Study Technology. When you accept an arbitrary in place of a fact or certainty you soon have confusion after confusion. This is why handling MUs, skipped gradients, and False Data is so important. They introduce arbitraries that need to be found and handled.  

ARC: A word made from the initial letters of Affinity, Reality and
Communication which together adds up to understanding. Pronounced as three letters A-R-C.
As-is: To view anything exactly as it is, without any distortions or lies, at
which moment it will be fully understood. When a problem is As-is-ed it will vanish and cease to exist as a problem.
Attention When interest becomes fixed, we have attention. Attention is aberrated by becoming unfixed and sweeping at random or becoming too fixed without sweeping.
Auditing: Also called Processing, the application of  processes and
procedures to someone by a trained auditor. 
The exact definition of auditing is: the action of asking a preclear a question (that he can understand and answer), getting an answer to that question and acknowledging him for that answer. It is done the increase the pc's abilities and awareness.
Auditing Session: A period in which an auditor and preclear are in a quiet place where they will not be disturbed. The auditor gives the preclear certain and exact commands the preclear can follow.
Auditor: A person trained in applying processes to individuals for their betterment; called an auditor because auditor means "one who listens."
Auditors Code: A professional code of conduct for auditors delivering auditing.
Axioms: Statements of natural laws on the order of those of the physical
sciences. The Logics are called the axioms of learning and rational thought.
Barrier: Something that blocks free access or the road ahead.
Blow: To depart without authorization from an area. To leave suddenly without explanation. It can be used as a noun and as a verb.
Something that suddenly disappears (such as a problem) is said to have blown.
Case: The sum of aberrated conduct or behavior resulting from the influences of the Reactive Mind. When a supervisor or practitioner are displaying 'case' they are acting in an irrational and also unprofessional manner. 
Case Supervision:  The inspection of auditing by a qualified Case Supervisor. The C/S reads and works from the auditor's reports; The C/S writes directions to the auditor. He works to ensure maximum gains for the preclear. 
Case Supervisor: A technical expert behind the scenes that ensures the quality of auditing by inspecting the auditing reports.
C/S: 1) A Case Supervisor (person)..
2) The Case Supervisor's written instructions, a C/S instruction.

The action of verifying a student’s knowledge of an item given on a checksheet. This is much like a verbal examination in school. But special attention is given to definitions of words and the student's ability to demonstrate principles with a demo kit.


A Checksheet is a printed form that sets out the items to be studied or done by a student, item by item, on a course. It lists all the materials and drills of the course in the order they are to be studied.

Clay demo: Clay Demonstration. Making an  illustration of the principles studied in model clay.
The student demonstrates definitions, principles, etc. in clay to obtain greater understanding by translating significance into actual mass.
Clay Table: A special table in the course room used for clay demo work.
Clear: 1) A person  who can be at cause knowingly and at will over mental matter, energy, space and time as regards the first dynamic (survival for self). 
2) A Being, who no longer has his own Reactive Mind.
Clearing: Various techniques directed at improving abilities and awareness leading to the state of Clear. The activity done in auditing.
Clearing Technology: Techniques and processes designed to bring a person to the state of Clear, step by step.
(CT). A  clearing technology, mainly defined and developed by Ron Hubbard. It's applied by an auditor to a preclear in a formal session. The goal is the spiritual betterment of the preclear. The application of the processes and technology will bring about this change and a change in the pc's conditions and life. 
Coach: The person who helps another student understand or apply a particular text or drill. He is a one-on-one instructor. Usually students take turns being coach and student. 
In Drilling: The one, that directs the student. She is the instructor of the drill, the one that calls the shots. The term 'coach' is best known from sports; he instructs the players and shows them what to do. During a game he gives the players practical advice from the sideline. 'Coach' is also used about a private instructor teaching a student.
Coaching: The act of helping another student through a piece of theory or a drill.
Cognition: A statement indicating a new understanding. A statement like "I have just realized..." or "What do you know...". It's a new realization of life. It results in a higher degree of awareness and a greater ability to succeed with one's endeavors.
Communication: Interchange of ideas and symbols between two or more people.
Perception is a type of communication as well. Here it is an interchange between an object and a person.
Comm Lag: Communication lag. The time that passes between a question and an actual answer. It can be hesitation but it can also be not answering the question by talking about something that isn't an answer. In study comm lag in a check-out is flunked. It shows the student doesn't know the materials 100%.
Communication Course: A course mainly consisting of practical drills, the so-called TRs. They teach the student the proper use of the Comm formula. It is an important part of auditor training, but applies to life situations as well.
Communication formula: The communication formula is: cause, distance, effect, with intention, attention, duplication and understanding.

A "completion" is the completing of a specific course or an auditing grade, meaning it has been started, worked through and has successfully ended with an award in Qual.

Concept: Thought or idea; general notion. 
Conceptual Understanding: When a person is  capable of understanding the ideas and concepts behind the words he has conceptual understanding. He is aware of the communication involved. He understands there is an teacher or author trying to make him duplicate and understand an idea or concept. When the student has understood the idea and doesn't need the words any more he has conceptual understanding.
Confront: To face without flinching or avoiding. Confronting is actually the ability to be there comfortably and perceive.
Confusion: Excessive unpredictable motion.
Control: The ability to start, change and stop things at one's own choice. 
Course: An organized activity and place where students study a subject. The full definition is in "What is a Course?"
Cramming: A special service that handles students' and practitioners' difficulties one-on-one, using interviews, Word Clearing and other remedies. It usually takes from a couple of hours to a day.
Cramming officer: That person in Cramming who helps students or auditors overcome their difficulties with materials they have misapplied. He also helps auditors who wish to be brought up to date on current technical materials.
Crashing misunderstood: A misunderstood word that stops one from doing the actions of the subject.
Datum, Data: Datum: a fact or piece a of information (noun). Data is plural of Datum.
Demo kit:

Demo Kit: Demonstration Kit
A bunch of rubber bands, batteries, fuses, corks, caps, paper clips, coins or whatever. The items are kept in a box or container
(tobacco tins or dairy cartons are good). These are used to demonstrate ideas with and increase the understanding of the idea.

Demonstration: In study: to show something by using physical objects. When you make a Demonstration you show some principle, idea or datum by using small objects. This is usually done on a table. Abbr. Demo.
Derivation: A derivation is a statement of the origin of a word. Words originated somewhere and meant something originally. Through the ages they have sometimes become altered in meaning. Knowing the Derivations helps greatly to get the full understanding of words.  When the student looks up words in the dictionary he has to read the small-print that explains where the word originally came from.
Dictionary: A dictionary is a book listing words and their definitions of a language or a specific subject. It gives the meanings of the words, their pronunciations and origins.
Dinky Dictionary: A Dinky Dictionary is a smaller dictionary that doesn't really give adequate definitions to understanding the words. Often they are made to be easy to bring along rather than emphasizing accuracy. They do not belong in study.
Doingness: Actions involved in doing something. The performing of actual actions as different from just reading or talking about it.
Drill: A practical assignment where typically one student coaches another in applying a piece of technology. Drills are done on a Gradient Scale. Each drill may train the student in one little skill that, put together with other skills drilled, add up to application for real.
Education: Real Education is the activity of relaying an idea or an action from one being to another, in such a way as not to make difficult or inhibit the use thereof. It should permit and help the student to be able to think with the subject and develop on the subject. The end-goal of education is application and results.
Enturbulated: Stirred up, agitated or turbulent.
Enturbulation: When a person's environment has been stirred up, become agitated, or turbulent.
Enturbulative Student: If the student's behavior has become disruptive to the whole course and the progress of other students in general he is an enturbulative student. He should not be allowed to display that in the course room but be handled elsewhere.
Essay: In study: The student writes a short piece on the subject matter given. Usually the checksheet gives a very specific subject to cover. If not, the student would follow the guide-lines of what is important to know in a check-out, but give the answer in writing.
In general: A short literary piece on a subject, usually expressing the writer's personal observations and opinions.
Ethics: In study: a disciplinary system administered by an ethics officer. If a student is enturbulating the course, breaking the Guidelines for Students, or has very low production he is sent to Ethics to have it sorted out.
Ethics Officer: A person who handles Ethics by using interviews and discipline; he helps the student sort out a situation but also demands proper conduct. 
Evaluate: Evaluate: To judge and determine the meaning, correctness, value, and consequence of a datum (verb).
Evaluation: Evaluation: The act of evaluating. The result of something being evaluated (noun). 
A student has to evaluate the data studied. On the other hand he should not try to evaluate for somebody else. Each student should arrive to a result based on their own efforts. Only in this way will he achieve sufficient certainty.
In auditing: Telling a pc "what's wrong with him" or why he is the way he is is incorrect. In auditing the auditor guides the pc to find explanations and solutions for himself. It is against the Auditors Code to evaluate for a pc in session. When a person is allowed to do his own evaluations he achieves greater certainty.
Exam: Examination. It can be a written Exam or a Pc Exam (see below).
Examiner: A person that inspects another person's knowledge or state of mind.
In study: somebody that checks out another person's knowledge in a limited subject or gives a person a written exam.
Pc Examiner: a person who checks a pc's indicators (state of mind) and Meter response after a session. He also issues certificates to students who have competed courses. 
Existing Scene: The current and imperfect state of affairs as different from the Ideal Scene. The existing scene is investigated in order to find what to change to reach the Ideal Scene.
Fact: Something that can be demonstrated to be true. A proven piece of information.
False data: Ideas that have been adopted that are found to be incorrect or inapplicable. They can make it very hard for a student to learn true data. It could be said to be a 4th barrier to study. A person with fixed ideas in an area is very hard to teach new ideas to.
False Data Stripping: A simple auditing procedure by which you have the student find false or conflicting data from past learning and discard them or 'blow' them. Having done that the student can now learn the true data. Having false data can make it impossible to teach a student the true data. The procedure is taught in Clearing Technology, Level 0.
First-hand Observation: Direct observation. Experiment, investigation, experience and and being an eye-witness are ways to obtain first-hand knowledge. These are very valuable ways of gaining data but too slow to be the only methods used (see also second-hand observation).
Flatten: "Flattening" something means to do it until it no longer produces a reaction. It has been discharged for reaction.
Flunk:  To make a mistake. Fail to apply the materials learned (verb). 
'A Flunk'. The opposite of a pass (noun). Also used by coaches as a command: "Flunk!", to tell the student a mistake was made.
Games condition: You can have a situation where the coach and student are in a "games condition". That means they are not working on the same goal but are in some kind of opposition to each other. This gives a problem situation or "no progress" situation. No progress, no wins, no production. There is no demonstration of competence permitted and morale is low. Coaches and students must not allow such a situation to happen. The supervisor should keep an open eye for something like that developing.
Glibness: The characteristic of a student who can easily recite what he read but cannot apply it. He knows the words but can't apply.
Glib Student: A student suffering from glibness.
Goal: The destination one works towards. It is something one desires and devotes a lot of energy to get to or get.
Gradient: A step or a series of steps that increase the demands on the student at a rate he can handle.
Something that starts out simple and gets more and more complex. The essence of a gradient is just being able to do a little bit more and a little bit more until you finally make the Grade.
(See also Skipped Gradient).
Graph: A simple curve on a piece of paper. It is made to show a student's production. It shows Time, day by day, along the bottom line. It shows Student Points along the left side of the Graph (see also student points).
Graphic Demo: 1) Graphic Demonstration. Used in engineering, organizing charts and in numerous other places to show lines, flows, how things work or go together, etc. Working it out on paper helps locating any problems in a project. 
2) It can also be a simple kindergarten type drawing used to work things out much as you do with a Demo Kit. The student draws a situation that illustrates the point he is learning. He writes on the drawing what the different parts are, using arrows.
Hat: Slang term for the work and title of one's post in an organization. 
(derived from railroad use of distinctively different hats to indicate
different jobs.)
Hidden Data Line: The false idea that the data presented somehow don't apply because other data exist that set them aside.
Homonym: A homonymic definition:  One word which has two or more clearly different meanings. A homonym can also be two (or more) words that sound the same ("piece" and "peace" for example). This can cause the student not to understand the text right.  
Example: to box (sport); a box (container). 
Ron Hubbard: (1911-86). Lafayette Ronald Hubbard. The principal writer of Scientology™. He developed and defined the technology of processing and also the Study Technology. Between 1959 and 1966 he taught courses at Saint Hill Manor, East Grinstead in England (south of London). There he developed most of the Study Technology. Over the summer and fall of 1964 he gave a series of lectures on the subject. The hard data from these lectures are all included in this manual. He was born in Nebraska, USA, and grew up near Seattle.
Ideal Scene: 1) The basic concept of The Ideal Scene for any activity is really a clean statement of its purpose. 
2) The Ideal Scene is the state of affairs envisioned to be the best obtainable reality or the Improvement of even that.
Idiom: An idiom is a phrase or expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words. For example 'give in’ is an English idiom meaning 'yield’. Quite a few words in English have idiomatic uses and these are usually given in a dictionary after the definitions of the word itself. These idioms have to be cleared.
Illiterate: A person who hasn't learned to read.
Importance: The degree of having relative value or consequence to the subject.
In-ethics: Means working for the greater good. Doing what one is supposed to do, being well-disciplined and productive. Opposite of Out-ethics.
Inflow: Being at the receiving end of a communication. Also, something happening to the person rather than causing something to happen is an inflow. The opposite of outflow.
Instructor: The person who teaches one-on-one. A supervisor and instructor are not the same thing. A supervisor is not supposed to do teaching but make sure the student applies the Study Technology when studying the materials.
Intelligence: As ability: The ability to be able to correctly see similarities and differences and recognize things that are identical. Also the ability to figure out the correct relative importance of something.
Government: Operation that finds out what the enemy is doing; spying. 
Intention: A decision or wish to do something specific. 

"Invalidation" means a degrading, 'trashing', ridiculing, discrediting or denying something someone else considers to be a fact or of value.

IQ: Intelligence Quotient. A number expressing a person's score on a test measuring his intelligence.
Jonathan Livingston Seagull: A symbolic book by Richard Bach about a seagull perfecting the ability to fly (symbolic for wisdom and ability). He teaches it to other selected seagulls. The seagull is the symbol for and logo for Clearbird Publishing.
Lack of Mass: One of the three principal barriers to study. The actual mass of the subject is missing. If a student is taught to repair cars and never shown a motor or even pictures of parts, or the tools and materials used in car repair, we have a typical example of lack of mass.
Literacy: Ability to read. A person's level of literacy is determined by the size of his vocabulary and how well he has cleared his definitions of these words. Grammar skills also plays a part, of course.
Literal Understanding: Literal understanding means the person is totally fixated on the meaning of words and does not perceive the idea or intention behind the communication very well. See also Conceptual understanding.
Literate: In study: A person that can read.
Locational processing: Processing which establishes confront and communication with the environment. It brings the person into present time; he becomes more alert and responsive. It can be run on a whole class of students at the same time with benefit.
Logics: Basic truths (axioms) that apply to learning and rational thought.
Manual: A textbook or basic handbook in how to do something.
Mass: In study: The physical objects involved in a field or subject.
The actual thing that is studied, or a sufficient substitute for it.
Materials: Study Materials, such as books, checksheets, demo kits, clay, dictionaries, handbooks, etc.
MEST: Word coined from the initial letters of Matter, Energy, Space and Time; the physical universe and its component parts; also used as an adjective in the same sense to mean physical, as in "MEST universe," meaning "physical universe."
Meter: An electronic instrument for measuring the mental state and change of state in an individual. Used as an aid in Word Clearing and auditing.
Its purpose is to assist the Word Clearer or auditor to locate things in the person's mind. It reacts on misunderstood words (also on unresolved problems and emotionally charged incidents).
The Meter is an instrument that reacts on exact questions asked. The Word Clearer has different ways to ask questions and will consult the Meter and use it to dig up long forgotten misunderstood words. 
Mind: A control system between the thetan and the physical universe. It is not the brain. The mind is the accumulated recordings of thoughts, conclusions, decisions, observations and perceptions of a thetan throughout his entire existence. The thetan can and does use the mind in handling life and the physical universe.
Misunderstood Word: "Misunderstood" or "Not-understood" are used to describe any troubles with understanding words, symbols, etc. It can be lack of or incomplete understanding of a word, concept, or symbol.
MU: Misunderstood word or symbol.
Nomenclature: The technical or specialized words of a subject or field.
Not-is: The effort to reduce an unwanted condition of existence by force. It can cause the person 'to forget about it' or make a thing look smaller, but does not handle the underlying difficulty. See also As-is.
Obnosis: A word put together from the phrase, "observing the obvious."
Means to observe things exactly as they are.
Origin: (of word) Same as derivation: The root meaning and development of a word. Where the word comes from. When the student looks up words in the dictionary he has to read the small-print that explains where the word originally came from.
'Out', Out: Things which should be there and aren't or should be done or aren't are said to be "out". Example: "Roll Call is out."
"In" is used in the opposite meaning: "Roll Call is in."
Out-ethics:  Not doing what one is supposed to do, being poorly disciplined, enturbulative, and non-productive. Opposite of In-ethics.
Outflow: Being at the cause end of a communication, sending communication. Also, causing something to happen rather than being the effect of something happening to him is an inflow. The opposite of inflow.
Out-point: Something wrong with a datum. A piece of illogic. 
An out-point is something that is wrong with an Ideal Scene. It's a datum that doesn't add up right. An out-point doesn't mean that the data presented are false, but the outnesses have to be taken into consideration. They subtract from the Ideal Scene as they don't align with the purpose or goal pursued.
Out Tech: Out technology; means that a technology is not being applied or is not being correctly applied.
Overrun: "Overrunning" something means accumulating protests and upsets about it until it is just a mass of stops. Anyone can do anything forever unless he begins to stop it.
Pc: See 'Preclear'.
PC Folder: A folder containing all the reports of auditing sessions received by the pc. Worksheets from Word Clearing sessions are filed in the PC Folder.
Pink Sheet: A Pink Sheet is a study assignment given to a student when he has missed something he should have learned earlier. It calls for restudy and check-out of the specific materials he missed. It is called a Pink Sheet because it is written on a pink sheet of paper.
Plus-point: Plus-points are indicators of something right. It's an element of the Ideal Scene. It's data that are in good order; there is something right about them. They are part of or help to obtain the Ideal Scene as they align with the purpose or goal pursued.
Practice: To do an action over and over in order to perfect one's skills.
Practical: In Study: The drills and actions which permit the student to use the theory he has been taught in Theory. 
Practical Section: The part of a course teaching practical (see above).
Sometimes this is done in a special course room separate from the Theory Section course room. It can simply mean the part of the checksheet that covers Practical drilling.
Preclear: From pre-Clear, a person not yet Clear; generally a person being
audited, who is thus on the Road to Clear; a person who, through 
processing, is finding out more about himself and life.
Present Time: That which is now and which becomes the past almost as rapidly as it is observed. It is a term that refers to the environment as it exists now, not as it existed; as in the phrase "the person came up to present time," it means the person became aware of his present environment, alert, and not in deep thought or 'in the past'.
Problem: Anything that has opposing sides of equal force; especially
postulate-counter-postulate, intention-counter-intention or
idea-counter-idea; an intention-counter-intention that worries a person.
Process: A specific technique used in auditing (processing). There are many processes. They consist of carefully worded questions and commands. The are used by an auditor in a formal session to help his client (preclear).
Processing: Processing is a series of methods (processes) arranged in a certain order as to bring the person to confront the no-confront sources of his aberrations. 
The same as 'auditing'.
Product: A finished high-quality service or article.
Professional: A practitioner with excellent practical skills and proven results in his field.
Purpose: A clear idea in what direction one is going and why. It's related to goal and can be defined as a lesser goal.
Q and A: Stands for Question and Answer. A failure to complete a cycle of action; to deviate from an intended course of action; it's a failure to complete a cycle of action.
Qual: The Qualifications Division - office taking care of quality control.  The student can receive different services here: the student is examined and he may receive cramming or special  assistance. Also where he is awarded a certificate upon completion and where his qualifications as attained on courses or in auditing are verified.
Quickie: Means omitting actions, for whatever reason, that would satisfy all demands or requirements and instead doing something superficially and accomplish less than could be achieved.
Reach and Withdraw: A very simple process that allows the student to get familiar with the mass of a subject without introducing any significance. He is made to touch the tools and objects of his trade under the control of a coach or auditor. The commands are simple: "Touch that (object)." Thank you." Let go of that (object)." "Thank you." It is done over and over, the coach pointing where to touch each time, until the student is VGIs.
Reactive Mind:  The reactive mind is the 'unconscious' and irrational part of a person's mind. It tends to get a person to react irrationally rather than respond analytically. It's a 'push-button mind'. A certain stimulus causes a certain reaction outside the person's analytical control.

Has to do with agreement (or lack thereof). It is the agreed upon apparency of existence. A reality is any data that agrees with the person's perceptions, way of thinking and education. Reality is one of the components of understanding. Reality is what is.

Retention: The capacity for retaining or remembering what one has studied.
Retraining: Retraining means that the student is sent to a Cramming interview where his problems with applying the materials are pinpointed. Then he gets straightened out on exactly what was missed. That done, he goes back to course and does the entire course again.
Retread: The student's weak areas are located and the student is Word Cleared on the appropriate materials and he then restudies selected materials. The student is given a longer study assignment that covers possible areas of his difficulties. It has to cover more than the obvious points since those points were already covered in previous Cramming Actions. A retread can take from one to several days to complete.
Review: When a preclear is having difficulty of some sort that is not immediately resolving with the actions being done, he may be sent to the Qualifications Division, where his pc folder is carefully checked over or "reviewed" and the necessary corrective  actions taken to resolve the difficulty. The actions done in this manner are collectively called "review".
R-Factor: Reality factor; explanation, information, data, etc., given to a person in order to bring about sufficient understanding for him to be able to perform a specific action. It is usually just a few sentences.
Roll Book: The master record of a course giving the student’s name, local and permanent address and the date of enrollment and departure or completion. It's different from the roll-call book that is used for roll-call.
Roll-call: The action of calling by name each student at the beginning of a study period to find out if they are present. To this end the supervisor has a roll call book with all the names and with columns to mark if the student is present or not.
Rookie: A person new to an activity or in his first year of an education or job.
Saint Hill Manor: An estate in East Grinstead, Sussex, England, 50 miles south of London. Ron Hubbard taught courses to advanced students there. It is still existing as a course facility, teaching Ron Hubbard's technologies in different fields.
Second-hand Observation: Relying on other people's first-hand observations. Books and education are mainly the relay of second-hand observation.
Schedule: The hours of a course or the designation of certain times for different activities.
Scientologie: (Scn): An applied philosophy. It deals with the study of knowledge, which through the application of its technology can bring about desirable changes in the conditions of life. 

Scientology™  is a trademarked word. Since wisdom and trademarks are inconsistent with each other, we use Scientologie. Trademarks belong to commercial interests. Wisdom belong to culture and scholars.

Schooling: Used to describe traditional pedantic systems of education with little interest in teaching the student to apply the subject.
Seagull: Jonathan Livingston Seagull. A symbolic book by Richard Bach about a seagull passing the ability to fly (symbolic for wisdom and ability) onto new generations of seagulls. The seagull is the symbol for Clearbird Publishing.
Self-auditing: Trying to run processes on oneself. Processes are designed to be administered by an auditor on a pc. The communication and control of the auditor is what makes auditing effective.
Session: 1) A precise period of time during which an auditor audits or processes a preclear. That's an auditing session.
2) In coaching it is a precise period during which the coach instructs the student in a specific drill using his coaching instructions and written materials to correct the student. That's a coaching session.
Significance: The meaning, concept, or idea of something in distinction to the thing itself, which is the mass. 
2) The significance and theory of a subject is not completely the same thing. Significance also has the meaning of being too removed for actual contemporary use. Thus older methods of application are often experienced as a significance. It is too removed from practical use. 
Skipped Gradient: One of the three principal barriers to study. The student went on to do something more complicated before mastering the simpler skills needed.
A skipped gradient means taking on a higher degree or amount before a lesser degree of it has been mastered. One has to go back and handle the missed step, degree, or thing or one will have losses on the subject thereafter.
Stable Datum: Any body of knowledge is built from one datum. That is its stable datum. Invalidate it and the entire body of knowledge falls apart. A stable datum does not have to be the correct one. It is simply the one that keeps things from being in a confusion and on which others are aligned.
Standard Technology: That technology which has absolutely no arbitraries; the exact processes and auditing actions laid down and used for the invariable resolution of cases. This was defined this way  by Ron Hubbard in 1968. In practice Standard Technology and Standard Clearing Technology is the same thing.
Star-rated: A very exact Check-out which verifies the full and minute knowledge on the student of a portion of study materials. It tests his full understanding of the data and his ability to apply it. 
When somebody else has to check the student out on something it is called a star-rated item and is marked with a star (*) on the Checksheet.
Student: Someone who studies. He is an attentive and systematic observer. A student is one who reads and studies in detail in order to learn and then apply.
Student Points: A point system that measures a student's production and success as a student. It is not a grade system. It measures the amount of study done.
Study: To apply one's mind to a subject in order to acquire knowledge and skill.
Study Barrier: There are three principal barriers to study: 1) Lack of Mass; 2) Skipped Gradient; and 3) Bypassing a misunderstood word or symbol. They prevent the student's understanding and ability to apply the materials studied. The Study Technology teaches how to overcome them.
Success Story: The written statement of benefit or gains or wins made by a student or a preclear.
Sup: Slang for 'Supervisor'.
Super-literate: See: Word Clearing Method 8.
Supervisor: The supervisor is the person that runs the course. He or she is neither a teacher nor an instructor. The supervisor ensures the students use the Study Technology correctly and gets the students through the course to a good result.
Supervisor Check-out: A Check-out done by the Supervisor of a course or his assistant. It is required for some checksheet items.
Symbol: 1) A significance that represents something else. Can be words, pictures, objects, or sounds.
2) An object which has mass, meaning and mobility. Something which is agreed to represent a certain idea.
Synonym: Two words close in meaning but not identical.
Target: In study: The supervisor sets a Target (or goal) for the student to reach for each study period. He marks that on the student's checksheet.
Tech: Short for technology.
Technology: 1) The know-how needed for  practical and useful application of an art or science as opposed to mere knowledge of the science itself. 
2) A technology is how you do something or a device or field based on scientific principles that has a practical purpose, such as 'computer technology'. Abbr. Tech.
Terminal: Anything that can receive, relay or send a communication (most common usage); also, anything with mass and meaning.
 "Terminal" means in our language "the end point of a communication line". It can be a person or a thing.
Terminology:  The technical or specialized words and expressions of a subject. See also nomenclature.
Theta: Energy peculiar to life or a thetan which acts upon the material in the physical universe and animates it, mobilizes it and changes it; natural creative energy of a thetan which he can direct toward survival goals.
Thetan: From Theta, a word taken from the Greek symbol or letter: theta, traditional symbol for thought or spirit. The thetan is the
individual himself--not the body or the mind. The thetan is the "I"; one doesn't have or own a thetan; one is a thetan.
(In Logic 22 the thetan is seen as part of the mind; but strictly speaking it is not the same thing. The thetan is the core person, the 'I' or 'me'. The mind are memories, ideas, pictures, etc. the thetan has assembled. This changes over time; the thetan does not).
Theory: The significance of a subject. An explanation of ideas and principles behind a subject. Theory covers the reasons why one goes through the motions and actions.
Theory Section: The part of the course teaching theory. Sometimes this is done in a course room separate from the Practical Section. It can simply mean the part of the checksheet covering Theory.
Toughness: Toughness in drilling and coaching is the Reality part of the ARC. It is insisting upon "You can do it" until the student actually does it right. That's what we mean by toughness and tough coaching. It is insisting upon it being done right and not being satisfied until that standard has been met. This is best done with ARC. Nothing of this exclude high ARC. But ARC without the needed reality is something else. Such ARC does not belong in drilling and training.
TRs: TRs: TR:
Training Routines:
Drills taught on the communication course. Each TR takes up and drills one part of the communication formula. There are 8 TRs taught on the communication course.
Twin: A study partner on a course. Having an assigned twin throughout the course greatly helps the students over rough points and makes the whole activity more effective and enjoyable. Two students studying the same subject who are paired to check-out or help each other are said to be "twinned."
Twinning:  A system used in training. You pair up two students studying the same course or materials and have them work together on theory and practical drills.
Two-way communication:
(2-way comm)
Supervisor two-way comm: The  supervisor shows interest in his students' progress and handles any failure to understand with Word Clearing.
In auditing: The precise process of getting somebody to open up and give emotional or personal information about himself. It is not chatter. It is governed by the rules of auditing. 
Understanding: 1) Composed of affinity, reality and communication. These three things are necessary to the understanding of anything. One has to have some affinity for it, it has to be real to him to some degree and he needs some communication with it before he can understand it. Greater understanding comes about by increasing any one of these three factors.
2) Knowingness in action. The ability to know about and interact with something.
Valuable Final Product: Something that can be exchanged with others in return for support. A product or service people are willing to pay good money for. The final valuable product of a course is successful graduates
(see also product).
Verbal Tech: In Study Technology the data line goes from the printed materials to the student - even when twinning. He learns from the 
materials, not from discussions with other students or from the supervisor. 
All students should be made aware of that the answers to their questions are in their course materials or other technical references. Students, particularly when they are new, sometimes get into an exchange of verbal data or opinions while they are twinning. The supervisor must step in, when he observes this happening, and prevent it.
Very Good Indicators: (VGIs) The student or preclear feels happy, cheerful and bright. The VGIs are the visible signs of this state of mind. 
Via: (noun) An indirect route. Instead of going from A to B the person takes a complicated route, from A to M to F to C and finally to B. The person is complicating simple actions.
An indirect route. "He sees things on a Via".
Vocabulary: The words the students knows and can use. The more words the student knows the greater his vocabulary is.
Win: A positive result in study or auditing. It usually means a new understanding or certainty has been obtained. A Win can also be the result of an accomplishment. It is accompanied by Very Good Indicators.
Withhold: Not telling about something harmful or embarrassing one has done. Holding on to Withholds lowers one's ability to communicate and interact with others. 
Word:  1. a symbolic sound-code (spoken word). Words are symbols, part of the physical universe because they are designed to be transmitted through a physical universe system. It can be spoken words or printed words. See also Symbol.
Word Chain: When a word within a definition has to be looked up, then a new word in that definition has to be looked up you have a word chain. Each word has to be fully defined before you are done.
Word Clearer: A practitioner who is qualified in and uses the technology of Word Clearing. 
Word Clearing: Various methods of locating and clearing misunderstood words.
An auditing procedure used to locate and clear words the student or preclear has misunderstood in his present studies or in earlier subjects he has studied.
Word Clearing Correction List: (WCCL:),  is used by a trained auditor/Word Clearer to handle any upsets or serious troubles occurring during or shortly after Word Clearing. End Phenomena is troubles handled and pc again feeling well and ready to go back to study. It is done in a formal auditing session with a Meter.
Word Clearing Methods: There are 10 methods of Word Clearing. They are listed and defined below:
Method 1: WORD CLEARING INTENSIVE, 1.Done with a Meter in a formal session. A full Assessment of many, many subjects is done. The auditor then takes each reading subject and clears the Chain back to earlier words and or words in earlier subjects until fully handled.
2. the action taken to clean up all misunderstoods in every subject one has studied. It is done by a Word Clearing auditor. The result of a properly done Method One Word Clearing is the recovery of one's education. Abbr. M1.
Method 2: WORD CLEARING METHOD 2, 1. By Meter in classroom. The earlier passage is read by the student while on a Meter and the misunderstood word is found. Then it is fully defined by dictionary. The word is then used several times in sentences of the student's own verbal composing. The misunderstood area is then re-read until understood.  2. A method of locating and handling misunderstood words, using a Meter, in which the student reads aloud from written materials and each reading word is cleared. Abbr.M2.
Method 3: WORD CLEARING METHOD 3, 1. Verbal in classroom. The student says he does not understand something. The supervisor has him look earlier in the text for a misunderstood word, gets the student to look it up, use it verbally several times in sentences of his own composition, then read the text that contained it. Then come forward in the text to the area of the subject he did not understand.  2. A method of Word Clearing used in the classroom where the misunderstood word is located and handled without the use of a Meter. M3 is often successful done by the student on himself. Abbr. M3.
Method 4: WORD CLEARING METHOD 4, 1. Method 4 fishes for the misunderstood word, finds it, clears it, looks for another in the area until there are no more, and the student happy. Then moves to another area, handles that, eventually all misunderstoods that resulted in the cramming order or troubles are handled. 2. a method of Word Clearing in which a Meter is used to rapidly locate any misunderstoods in a subject or section of materials. It is used in the classroom by the course supervisor.  Abbr. M4.
Method 5: WORD CLEARING METHOD 5, a system wherein the Word Clearer feeds words to the person and has him define each. It is called material clearing. Those words the person cannot define must be looked up. This method is the method used to clear words or auditing commands or auditing lists.  Abbr. M5
Method 6: WORD CLEARING METHOD 6, is called key Word Clearing. It is used on posts and specific subjects. The Word Clearer makes a list of key (or most important) words relating to the person's duties or post or the new subject. The Word Clearer without showing the person the definitions, asks him to define each word. The Word Clearer checks the definition on his list for general correctness. Any slow or hesitant answers or mis-definition is met with having the person look the word up. Abbr. M6.
Method 7: WORD CLEARING METHOD 7, whenever one is working with children or foreign-language persons or semi-literates Method 7, Reading Aloud is used. The procedure is to have him read aloud. Note each omission or word change or hesitation or frown as he reads and take it up at once. Correct it by looking it up for him or explaining it to him verbally.  It is used when having the student using the dictionary himself is too steep a gradient. Abbr. M7.
Method 8: WORD CLEARING METHOD 8, is an action used in the Primary Rundown where one is studying Study Technology or where one is seeking a full grasp of a subject. Its end product is super-literacy. Usually an alphabetical list of every word or term in the text of a paper, a chapter or a recorded tape is available or provided. The person looks up each word on the alphabetical list and uses each in sentences until he has the meaning conceptually.  Abbr. M8.
Method 9: WORD CLEARING METHOD 9, the procedure is: (1) student reads the text out loud. He is not on the Meter. (2) the Word Clearer has a copy of the text and reads along with the student silently. (3) if the student leaves out a word or stumbles or exhibits any physical or verbal manifestation while reading the text, the Word Clearer immediately asks for the misunderstood word or term and gets the meanings cleared with a dictionary and put into sentences until the word is understood and Good Indicators are present. 
Method 10: Crashing MU Finding is sometimes called Method 10 (see Crashing MU).
Word List: This is simply a list of words taken from a body of data. A word list can be made for a tape lecture, a chapter of a book, etc. The word list contains all the words listed in alphabetical order.
Worksheet: The sheets on which a Word Clearer or auditor writes a  running record of the session from beginning to end, page after page, as the session goes along.
Zero-rated: The student attests to that he has studied the materials and has not left behind any misunderstoods. Usually no examination is given on zero-rated materials. The supervisor can decide the student needs to be spot-checked or examined and would do that to ensure a general understanding has been reached as the student attested to.


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