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How to Fly the Rudiments

You 'fly the rudiments' in the beginning of the session. To 'fly the Ruds' is simply slang for running the rudiments processes to a point where the pc is 'flying', here meaning having an F/N and VGI's.

It is done to help the pc deal with any distractions that would interfere with the session. The rudiments (ruds) are used to get the pc in shape to be audited on a Major Process, like a Grades process.

For auditing to be effective the pc has to be 'in-session':

A. Willing to talk to the auditor
B. Interested in his own case.

That is what the rudiments are designed to do. Sometimes they will accomplish a lot more, which is great, but that is not the auditor's main goal.

There are three common reasons for that a pc isn't 'in-session'. These are also the three common rudiments. They are:

1) ARC Breaks, 
2) Present Time Problems and 
3) Withholds.

If you audit a pc, who has an ARC break he will become worse.
If you audit a pc who has a Present Time Problem or a Withhold (or a Missed Withhold), no change will occur.

So it is important to address these things right at the beginning of the session so the pc can benefit from the Major Action.

Here is how you handle each rudiments question when you get an instant read on it:


ARC break: 
becoming upset
  - as the busy guy  
who sees his 
colleague just 
goofing off. 

ARC Break
You check this question while looking at the Meter:

"Do you have an ARC break?"

If you get an instant read you know the question is charged. What is an ARC break?

ARC means: Affinity, Reality, Communication. These are the parts of Understanding.

ARC break means: A sudden drop in Affinity, Reality or Communication with somebody or something. A person that is upset has an ARC break. He or she experienced a sudden drop in ARC when the upset occurred. There are many words for ARC break: Getting angry, becoming sad, become silent, get upset, etc. They all describe a drop in emotional tone and in ARC.

It is called an ARC break in auditing because you use the parts of the ARC triangle to resolve it.

You don't audit an ARC break. Meaning you don't  'talk it out'. You want to keep any conversation to an absolute minimum. Instead you find the reactive charge with the Meter. You do an Assessment of the parts of ARC: Affinity, Reality, Communication and Understanding to find which part is most charged. You simply indicate the charge to the pc. Then you do an additional Assessment on the Meter to nail the charge down further.

The Assessment may cause the pc to become VGI's and an F/N on the Meter (but remember F/N and BAD Indicators means it is an ARC break needle).

If no F/N VGI's, You get an Earlier Similar ARC break and treat it the same way. Here are the steps:

1. Check this question while looking at your Meter:


If you get an instant read (SF, F, LF or LFBD) or if it reads instantly on pc stating an ARC break, you take it up.

2. You briefly get the circumstances and data.
Either pc tells you or you ask something like
"What was the ARC break?"

3. Use your Meter to assess:

     Was it a break in Affinity?___


You only asses the questions one time and you take the longest read; let's say on 'Affinity' (F).

4. You ask pc: "Was it a break in (Affinity)?"

If pc says no you redo the Assessment
If pc says 'Yes' you say:

"I would like to indicate it was a break in (Affinity)"

When you indicate the right thing the pc will brighten up, at least a little bit.
If the pc says "Maybe, but it seem more like a break in Reality to me". You should acknowledge pc's item and say:
"Thank you, I want to indicate it was a break in Reality".

5. You take the item found above. Let's say 'Reality'. You assess that on the CDEI Scale. You say:

    Was it:

            Curious about (Reality)?___
                       Desired (Reality)?___
                    Enforced (Reality)?___
                    Inhibited (Reality)?___
                              No (Reality)?___
            Refused (Reality)?___

6. Again you assess once, get the largest read and check it with the pc. Let's say you got 'Enforced Reality' on this Assessment. You ask pc:

"Was it an Enforced Reality?"
If pc says 'No', you rehandle. If pc says 'Yes' you indicate: 

"I want to indicate it was an (Enforced Reality)"

7. You may get F/N VGI's at some point. That is the EP for a rudiment question. If no EP yet you ask:

"Is there an earlier similar ARC break?"

8. You do step 2-6 on the Earlier Similar ARC break. If no F/N and VGI's you ask (7) Is there an Earlier similar ARC break? and do step 2-6 until you get the F/N and VGI's. It may happen at just spotting the basic incident or at any other time. When you see the pc brighten up, be quiet and listen and watch for the F/N. When the F/N occurs, indicate it gently.



  PTP: a problem  
upon which the 
person has his 
attention fixed.


Present Time Problem
The next rudiment to check is 'PTP', Present Time Problem.

Problem means: Two opposing intentions resulting in a conflict. Two opposing goals or any two things, one versus the other, resulting in a conflict that worries the pc.

A Present Time Problem (PTP) means: A special problem or situation upon which the pc has his attention fixed. It can be any set of circumstances the pc feels he should do something about rather than be audited.

Examples: The pc can not have his attention on his own case comfortably because his car is illegally parked; maybe he has a situation at work and he feels he has to do something about right now! His attention is fixed 'over there' and it violates being in-session.

In case of the parking situation it is better to let him handle it. Simply end off and let him repark the car so it is legal and come back and be sessionable.

In most situations his attention is fixed on something reactively. The right action is then to audit the rudiment.

The 'PTP' Question is:


2. If you have an instant read on the question or on pc's statement of one, you take it up.
You have the pc tell you about it - enough for you to see the situation.

3. If no F/N VGI's you go earlier similar:


4. You have pc tell you about that problem. If no F/N you follow it earlier similar until you get F/N and VGI's.


  A Missed Withhold  
is a withhold being 
restimulated by 
somebody else - 
here the man 
coming by.


Missed Withhold
The third rudiment checked is 'M/W/H', Missed Withhold.

First some definitions:

Overt Act: 1) A harmful act committed intentionally to solve a problem.
2) An act of commission or omission which does the least good for the least number of dynamics, or the most harm to the greatest number of dynamics.
3) That action or thing you do or did which you aren't willing to have happen to yourself.

Withhold: An unrevealed harmful act. The pc did something 'bad' and now he keeps it secret. An overt act the pc did that he doesn't want to talk about. An embarrassing secret.

Missed Withhold: This is a 'nearly found out' or 'wonder if he knows'. It takes another person to miss a withhold. The pc has a withhold which another person nearly found out about. Now the pc wonders whether his withhold is known or not.

A pc with a missed withhold is not honestly 'willing to talk to the auditor' and thus not in-session. The M/W/H needs to be pulled before he can talk freely to the auditor.

It is important to be good at cleaning up missed withholds. Missed withholds is what is behind all ARC breaks. If the auditor doesn't pick up the M/W/Hs or only gets part of a M/W/H the pc won't be in-session.


Pc critical: 
Check for M/W/Hs
Pc Exhausted:
Check for M/W/Hs


There are some clear symptoms of the pc having M/W/Hs:
Pc is not making progress or lack of results. Pc is critical of auditor or auditing. Pc keeps making snide remarks about auditor or anybody else (meaning that person missed the withhold). Pc angry at the auditor or refusing to talk to him. Pc is trying to avoid getting audited. Pc telling others 'auditor is no good', being critical of ST, the course and the people involved with it. Pc demanding to be compensated for 'wrong actions' (demands free auditing, refund, etc.)
Also: pc feeling foggy or exhausted at session end. Pc's havingness going down.

You see it is important to handle these things first. So the auditor must keep an eye on pc's indicators and handle any signs of missed withholds.

The auditor uses the following system to get a missed withhold and get all of it.


2. If you get a read or reading answer to (1) you ask:

(a) What was it?

(b) When was it?

(c) Is that all of the WH? (make sure to get all)
(d) Who missed it?
(Sometimes you can get an F/N on 'Who missed it'. You would indicate that F/N, but you would still ask the next question, 'what did he/she do'. This would usually cause the F/N to widen and blow the withhold completely.)

(e) What did (person) do that made you wonder whether (person) knew?

(f) Who else missed it? (do (e) on that person).

Make sure you get all the persons who missed it and repeat (e) on each. You can use 'suppress' button on (d) when needed:

("On 'Who missed it' has anything been suppressed")

3. Clean (2) to F/N VGI's. If no F/N you take it 'earlier similar':


You handle each Earlier Similar M/W/H with Step (2) until you get an F/N.

Suppress Button
If a rudiment question doesn't read but doesn't F/N either you can use the 'Suppress Button'.

Example: "Do you have an ARC break?" 'X' (= no read).
Ask: "On 'Do you have an ARC break' has anything been suppressed?" 'SF'
That is a valid read and you handle the ARC break rud per steps above.

Example: "Do you have a Present Time Problem?" 'X'

Ask: "On 'Do you have a Present Time Problem' has anything been suppressed?" 'F/N'.

You got an F/N on the question and the rudiment is 'in'.

Example: "Has a Withhold been Missed?" 'tick' (not a valid read, but a sign).

Ask: "On 'Has a Withhold been Missed' has anything been suppressed?" 'SF'
That is a valid read and you handle M/W/H per steps above to F/N VGI.

Example: You handled M/W/Hs to F/N VGI's at the beginning of session. Pc keeps being critical of what you do. Pc is not in-session. Your first duty is to have the pc in-session so you check:
"Has a withhold been Missed" 'tick'
"On 'has a withhold been Missed' has anything been suppressed?" 'SF'
You now handle this M/W/H per steps above to F/N VGI's. You may even have to find additional ones to get the pc in-session fully.

False Button
You can also run into the situation where you get a false read. When asking 'Do you have a PTP' (SF) the pc thinks 'No' and that can be the read.

If your pc seems to protest, seems puzzled or surprised you will have to check the 'False' button:

"Has anyone said you had a Present Time Problem, when you didn't have one?"

You ask for or get : 'Who', 'What', 'When' and take that question E/S to F/N VGI's.
When you have F/N VGI's you are normally done with the ruds.

The End Phenomena on Ruds
The purpose of rudiments is only to get the pc in-session. You are not trying to bring about a major change. When you see the FN VGI's, that's it. You are not looking for a cognition or anything else.

During Session Out-Ruds
If the auditor sees any manifestations during the session of 'Out Ruds' he does not need a special C/S instruction to handle that.

The auditor's starting point is having the pc in-session. If the auditor perceives, the pc is not 'interested in his own case and willing to talk to the auditor', the auditor should suspect an out rudiment and can simply check for it. As described above each rudiment has its special manifestations or symptoms.

Usually the auditor will have a C/S instruction like:

1. Fly a Rud to FN
2. Do a major process.

The auditor will check each rudiment and take up the first reading one and take it to F/N VGI's.
Now the pc is assumed to be 'in-session' and he can begin to run the major process.

If the 'Ruds go out' during session, meaning distractive things make the pc go out of session, the auditor should notice and handle it right there and then by checking the rudiment he suspects out.

The major process can of course bring up Problems, ARC breaks or WH's and as long as pc is running the process and in-session you just continue.

For pc's that are new or haven't been audited for a while it is common to check all ruds.

You can have a C/S instruction like:

1. Fly each Rud to FN
2. Do a major process.

In this case the auditor will check each rudiment and take up the first reading one and take it to F/N VGI's.

Now he rechecks the remaining ones until he has a F/N on each of the rudiments questions.

High or Low TA at the Start
You don't fly rudiments on pc's with the TA above 3.5 (high) or below 2.0 (low).

The first thing to find out in this case is, if the pc has False TA. (See the False TA chapter and checklist).
You can check the hands for being too dry or wet and remedy it. Also check the size of cans.
If the TA is easily brought into range you can go ahead.
If the TA stays high or low the rudiments are not the right thing to do. You need a new C/S instruction.

Pc's with chronic high or low TA (that isn't false) need to be audited on a correction list. As an auditor you simply write up your full observation and end off.

It is up to the C/S to look over pc's auditing folder and history and decide how to handle. It may require a higher classed auditor, typically a ST Level 3 auditor.

There is a correction list called C/S 53, High-low Ta handling that is most commonly used to handle this.

Floating Needles with VGI's are valid at any TA position. But since high or low TA (not false) still means mental mass on the case in restimulation it needs to be addressed with the right process or list.

This mass will be 'something else' that is on the pc's mind and not being addressed with the rudiments or major process. It needs to be addressed and handled.

The general rule of auditing is, handle what is already in restimulation. When this is done, use a process to restimulate a specific area of pc's case and handle that restimulation to EP.

Handling what is already in restimulation keeps the pc a little ahead of life and what is happing around him. The ruds are an important part of that.

Using a major process to restimulate a specific area and handle it is what makes up for permanent gains and increased ability, awareness and freedom.

Flying the rudiments first enables the auditor to advance the case as the pc is now in-session and benefiting from the major process.



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