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Missed Withholds, ARC Breaks
and Out Rudiments


One Primary error in handling upset pc's is to handle the pc with ARC break procedure, when the pc really has missed withholds.

Some auditors dislike to pull withholds and missed withholds. It seems easier to confront that the pc has an ARC break.

ARC break handling does work, but you will see some pc's where it apparently doesn't handle the situation. That is because it was a missed withhold in the first place. Also, the pc that keeps getting ARC breaks and seems to need an ARC break handling every few sessions is really not being handled with the right procedure. Such pc's need to have their withholds and missed withholds pulled, because M/W/Hs are at the bottom of this.

It is true that ARC breaks, present time problems and withholds all keep a session from occurring. And we must watch them and clear them up when needed in session.

But behind each of these out-rudiments is another button, which resolves each of them. And that button is the restimulated but missed or partially missed withhold. If you clean up the missed withholds these out-rudiments tend to disappear. But this is most directly applies to ARC breaky pc's. It seems to rest on this stable datum: If the person is upset, somebody failed to find out what that person was sure they would find out. The Missed withhold is a 'Should have known'.


A random alcohol test can make 
some drivers extremely upset 
- mainly because the officer was
 only interested in, if he was over
  the limit right there and then. She  
 "Should have known..." ...just 
about any overt he had ever 
done related to traffic.

  The reason for ARC breaks in auditing can be seen to have one common source.; based on many tests we can now state it this way:

All ARC breaks stem from missed withholds.
There are no ARC breaks when missed withholds have been cleaned up.

This datum should be fully understood as it applies any time and should be ready for use in any session and at any point in session. Pick up the missed withholds at the first sign of troubles in session and there will be no need for odd control methods or a any frequent ARC breaks or heavy out ruds in session.

If you pick up the missed withholds at the first sign the pc will stay in-session.

There is no need for rough, angry and ARC breaky sessions. If this should occur it is not the fault of the pc. It is the fault of the auditor. The auditor failed to pick up the missed withholds. (see also footnote).


A Dirty Needle1)
  illustrated by the  
ragged  line

1) An erratic agitation of the needle which is ragged, jerky, 
ticking, not sweeping; it tends to persist. it is not limited in size.


The auditor sets the tone of the session and one important tool in this is to recognize the indicators of missed withholds and when present, ask for and get them cleaned up completely and thus restore the pc to being in-session and winning. If the auditor sees a Dirty Needle, he should suspect missed withholds (this can even be inadvertent ones as is the case with a cut communication - see Meter drill 20) and get them cleaned up.

It is not how interesting, pleasant or clever the auditor is that makes the session. It is how well and how standard the auditor applies the technology. That's what inspires pc confidence.

To ask for and get missed withholds at any time the pc starts to have any trouble is part of this.

 Pc being Critical or Exhausted are two
Indicators of  Missed Withholds

Here are some of the manifestations. They are handled by asking for and getting the correct missed withhold(s).

1. Pc failing to make progress.
2. Pc critical of or angry at auditor.
3. Pc refusing to talk to auditor.
4. Pc attempting to leave session.
5. Pc not desirous of being audited (or anybody not desirous of being audited).
6. Pc boiling off.
7. Pc exhausted.
8. Pc feeling foggy at session end.
9. Dropped havingness.
10. Pc telling others the auditor is no good.
11. Pc demanding redress of wrongs.
12. Pc critical of organizations or staff.
13. People critical of ST or the technology.
14. Lack of auditing results.
15. Pc unwilling to tell others about auditing or ST.

This is a pretty impressive list; and you may think that we overstate the troubles that can stem from missed withholds. But experience has shown, that there is one simple cure for all these things. The cure is contained in this question and its variations: "Has a withhold been missed?"

Questions you can use are:

"In this session, have I missed a withhold on you?"
"In this session have I failed to find out something?"
"In this session is there something I don't know about you?"
"Has somebody failed to find out about you who should have?"
"Has anyone ever failed to find out something about you?"
"Is there something I failed to find out about you?"
"Have you ever successfully hidden something from an auditor?"
"Have you ever done something somebody failed to discover?"
"Have you ever evaded discovery in this lifetime?"
"Have you ever hidden successfully?"
"Has anyone ever failed to locate you?"

Any case not up to recognizing overts will respond to "didn't know about you" when the case doesn't respond to "withhold". If pc is critical of a certain person or group, you should look for withholds missed by that person or a group member. If he is critical of Pete, you can ask "Did Pete miss a withhold on you?"

ARC breaks don't cause blows (sudden inexplicable departures). Missed withholds do. When you won't hear what the pc is saying, then you have made him have a withhold and it responds as a missed withhold and will cause a Dirty Needle and can of course lead to an ARC break.

In short, the bottom of ARC breaks is a missed withhold.

In doing Confessional type of auditing you would at a regular interval check for missed withholds. If you see any of the manifestations of missed withholds, you would ask for missed withholds. You would handle a reading question per 'Flying ruds'. Make sure you get the "Who missed it?", and "What did he/she do that made you think he/she might know?" answered fully, as that is the point of restimulation. When you have run a question to F/N, you would then recheck the exact same question and not leave it until it was F/N'ing or clean on asking, including putting in the buttons 'Suppress' and 'Invalidate'.

If you cleaned up one question, but still saw any of the indicators of missed withholds displayed in session, you would then take another question until you, the Meter and the pc was all in agreement about, that the subject of missed withholds was cleaned up.

If in doubt one can Meter check on a withhold to see if it is non-existent ("Am I demanding a withhold you haven't got?"). If this is the case it will read. If it isn't the case the needle will be null. If the pc's nattery or an ARC breaky condition continues despite finding by-passed charge, then of course it is obviously a missed withhold you have to find.

There is one thing you must remember. As an auditor you are bound by the Auditors Code. The Meter is not.

When you clear missed withholds you are not looking for new withholds to steer up. You are only looking for restimulated or missed withholds that should have been picked up but for some reason or another wasn't.

Don't be reasonable or over-understanding when you look for missed withholds. Get your question answered. The Meter is accurate. If you get a read, you should find out exactly what there is to it by getting your question answered. To do otherwise poses a danger to you being effective as an auditor and will eventually make it impossible for you to get pc's that are willing to be audited by you. 
(Real knowledge to the average person is only this: a knowledge of his or her withholds! That, horribly enough, is Knowledge to the average man. If you know his withholds, if you know his crimes and acts, he knows you are smart).

If you have one particular pc that is "withholdy and ARC breaks a lot" you can do the following after you've cooled off the last of his many ARC breaks:

1. Get the pc to look at what's going on with his sessions.
2. Get the pc in comm.
3. Get the pc to look at what's really bugging him.
4. Get the pc's willingness to give withholds up on a gradient.
5. Bring the pc to an understanding of what he's doing.
6. Get the pc's purpose in being audited in plain view to him or her.

Those steps are of course the subject matters of the Grades 0 - 4. However, low down, these things are all crushed together and you could really pursue that cycle in one session just to get the pc up a bit without even touching the next Grade to come.


The Missed Withhold Rudiment

The third rudiment checked is 'M/W/H', Missed Withhold.

First some definitions:

Overt Act: 1) A harmful act committed intentionally to solve a problem.
2) An act of commission or omission which does the least good for the least number of dynamics, or the most harm to the greatest number of dynamics.
3) That action or thing you do or did which you aren't willing to have happen to yourself.

Withhold: An unrevealed harmful act. The pc did something 'bad' and now he keeps it secret. An overt act the pc did that he doesn't want to talk about. An embarrassing secret.

Missed Withhold: This is a 'nearly found out' or 'wonder if he knows'. It takes another person to miss a withhold. The pc has a withhold which another person nearly found out about. Now the pc wonders whether his withhold is known or not.

A pc with a missed withhold is not honestly 'willing to talk to the auditor' and thus not in-session. The M/W/H needs to be pulled before he can talk freely to the auditor.

It is important to be good at cleaning up missed withholds. Missed withholds is what is behind all ARC breaks. If the auditor doesn't pick up the M/W/Hs or only gets part of a M/W/H the pc won't be in-session.

There are some clear symptoms of the pc having M/W/Hs:

Pc is not making progress or lack of results. Pc is critical of auditor or auditing. Pc keeps making snide remarks about auditor or anybody else (meaning that person missed the withhold). Pc angry at the auditor or refusing to talk to him. Pc is trying to avoid getting audited. Pc telling others 'auditor is no good', being critical of ST, the course and the people involved with it. Pc demanding to be compensated for 'wrong actions' (demands free auditing, refund, etc.)
Also: pc feeling foggy or exhausted at session end. Pc's havingness going down.

You see it is important to handle these things first. So the auditor must keep an eye on pc's indicators and handle any signs of missed withholds.

The auditor uses the following system to get a missed withhold and get all of it.

(Other questions from this chapter can be used, but must then be taken to EP - not some other question).

2. If you get a read or reading answer to (1) you ask:

(a) What was it?

(b) When was it?

(c) Is that all of the WH? (make sure to get all)
(d) Who missed it?

(Sometimes you can get an F/N on 'Who missed it'. You would indicate that F/N, but you would still ask the next question, 'what did he/she do'. This would usually cause the F/N to widen and blow the withhold completely.)

(e) What did (person) do that made you wonder whether (person) knew?

(f) Who else missed it? (do (e) on that person).

Make sure you get all the persons who missed it and repeat (e) on each. You can use 'suppress' button on (d) when needed:

("On 'Who missed it' has anything been suppressed")

3. Clean (2) to F/N VGI's. If no F/N you take it 'earlier similar':


You handle each Earlier Similar M/W/H with Step (2) until you get an F/N.


Suppress Button
If a rudiment question doesn't read but doesn't F/N either you can use the 'Suppress Button'.

Example: "Has a Withhold been Missed?" 'tick' (not a valid read, but a sign).

Ask: "On 'Has a Withhold been Missed' has anything been suppressed?" 'SF'
That is a valid read and you handle M/W/H per steps above to F/N VGI.

Example: You handled M/W/Hs to F/N VGI's at the beginning of session. Pc keeps being critical of what you do. Pc is not in-session. Your first duty is to have the pc in-session so you check:
"Has a withhold been Missed" 'tick'
"On 'has a withhold been Missed' has anything been suppressed?" 'SF'
You now handle this M/W/H per steps above to F/N VGI's. You may even have to find additional ones to get the pc in-session fully.

False Button
You can also run into the situation where you get a false read. When asking 'Has a withhold been missed?' (SF) the pc thinks 'No' and that can be the read.

If your pc seems to protest, seems puzzled or surprised you will have to check the 'False' button:

"Has anyone said you had a M/W/H, when you didn't have one?"

You ask for or get : 'Who', 'What', 'When' and take that question E/S to F/N VGI's.
When you have F/N VGI's you are normally done with the ruds.


The End Phenomena on Ruds
The purpose of rudiments is only to get the pc in-session. You are not trying to bring about a major change. When you see the FN VGI's, that's it. You are not looking for a cognition or anything else.

Footnote (1) All ARC breaks can be cleaned up with missed withhold techniques by an expert auditor. The statement "If you pick up the missed withholds at the first sign the pc will stay in-session" is however the key here. One year later R. Hubbard developed another method of handling upsets, that were easier to do and it worked well on pc's that were already in trouble.  He restated the cause of ARC breaks in technical bulletin 27 May 1963:  "All ARC breaks are caused by By-passed Charge". By-passed Charge is defined as: "Earlier reactive charge that is restimulated, but not seen. Or, charge available to the auditor, but not picked up."  A missed withhold and By-passed Charge are thus closely related. A missed withhold is By-passed Charge. In above R. Hubbard also included inadvertent WH's and it could be argued that all of By-passed Charge was then covered. The restatement of 1963 was simply a wider view and led to additional techniques. (This is part of ST 3 and the theory behind Repair Lists).

The basic data are thus still valid, but the practical approach has been modified by newer techniques: In auditing overts and withholds, as in confessionals, you would resolve any upsets or troubles in session by using the so-called trouble buttons: You would check for (1) missed withholds (per this chapter), then (2) False read. (3) ARC break. If none of these questions would resolve the matter you would look wider for By-passed Charge, using a Confessional Repair list. But M/W/H is still the number one reason for troubles. In general auditing you would use Auditors Rights "Ruds Going Out" as your practical guide line.



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