The Logics

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No Frame


   the father of two-   
valued logic.


As early as 1951 R. Hubbard published The Logics. These have been called "the axioms of learning" and "the axioms of rational thinking".

First, you may ask, "what are axioms, be it in Study Technology or in physics?"

Axioms are laws, principles and agreements so fundamental that they cannot be argued about. They can neither be proven nor disproven. All logical deductions start from there. If one could think "further down" than them, they wouldn't be axioms. They are the basic laws and principles we build good science and knowledge on. 

These Logics are not necessarily new. It is an attempt to codify and define how we think when we think rationally. The codification is however a great help to clean house and make this whole field easier to work with. The last Logics (Logic 22-24) do point in a new direction and are new as axioms.

Man's development and control over his environment parallels his ability to think rationally. Logical thinking could be said to be the ability to combine factors into answers. There are some distinct phases in this development.

Primitive logic was one-valued. Everything was assumed to be the product of a divine will, and there was no obligation to decide the rightness or wrongness of anything. Most logic added up merely to the propitiation of the gods. 

Aristotle formulated two-valued logic. A thing was either right or wrong. This type of logic has some workability. But it is also the logic used by the reactive mind. Irrational people see things in black-and-white. Things are either perfectly good or terribly bad. No stops in between. 

Engineers and scientists developed logic into a sort of three-valued logic which contains the values of right, wrong, and maybe. 

From three-valued logic we move forward to the system used in this manual: an infinity valued logic-- a spectrum which moves from infinite wrongness to infinite rightness. This last type of logic had not been codified before 1951. We may have used it all along, but it wasn't formally known to science.

A student does not only have to learn data, data, data. This was discussed under schooling versus education for life. He has to learn to think with the data. This usually benefits the student in other ways than just in the subject he studies. You can probably give plenty of first-hand examples of this; well-educated people act in a more rational manner, they are able to think better, and they promote the greater good for themselves, their family, friends, and society in general. Their studies have benefited them on a personal level. This comes down to a higher level of literacy and a better ability to think. 

Therefore the ultimate benefits from study in general and the Study Technology and the Logics we bring here reach much further than simply be able to hold a well-paying job.

The Logics

(R. Hubbard's original text is in this typeface, normal and bold.) 
Editor's comments, including picture texts, are in this typeface). 

LOGIC 1. Knowledge is a whole group or sub-division of a group of data or speculations or conclusions on data or methods of gaining data.

Comments: Datum is defined as, "a known fact or a starting point in an assumption". It comes from Latin; original meaning is 'given'. 'Data' is plural of 'Datum'.




Groups of data Speculations, methods  Conclusions


LOGIC 2. A body of knowledge is a body of data, aligned or unaligned, or methods of gaining data.

Comments: Examples of bodies of knowledge could be, a book, a whole subject, a report. How well it is written or organized is not part of the definition.
Examples of methods of gaining data: Each science has a methodology, how it gather and evaluate data. Each society has a system of education. Each individual has a system for perceiving and interpreting the environment.



LOGIC 3. Any knowledge which can be sensed, measured or experienced by any entity is capable of influencing that entity.

Corollary -- That knowledge which cannot be sensed, measured, or experienced by any entity or type of entity cannot influence that entity or type of entity.

Comments: 'Corollary' is a mathematical expression that means, 'following as a result', 'from this we can conclude'.
'Entity' can be an individual, group, animal, or plant. It can also be a physical object. A physical object can 'experience' an impact for instance. Measuring instruments are designed for all kinds of purposes to sense, measure, and 'experience' physical influences. A science as physics only accepts things that can be sensed and measured. We talk about Cause and Effect. 




LOGIC 4. A datum is a facsimile of states of being, states of not being, actions or inactions, conclusions, or suppositions in the physical or any other universe.

Comments: 'Facsimile' is the central word. According to the dictionary it means, exact copy, such as a photo or photo copy. From Latin 'fac' and 'similar', originally meaning 'make similar'. The human mind is capable of making facsimiles of anything and does so in order work with problems on a mental level.



timetrack3.jpg (29690 bytes)

The human mind uses facsimiles 
as symbolic representations of 
things. This way problems can be 
   worked out on a mental level. It is   
also a major source of error and 
aberration as the facsimile is 
not the thing and can be erroneous.
A facsimile has mass 
and significance.


LOGIC 5. A definition of terms is necessary to the alignment, statement and resolution of suppositions, observations, problems and solutions and their communication.

Definition -- Descriptive definition: One which classifies by characteristics, by describing existing states of being.

Definition -- Differentiative definition: One which compares unlikeness to existing states of being or not being.

Definition -- Associative definition: One which declares likeness to existing states of being or not being.

Definition -- Action definition: One which delineates cause and potential change of state of being by cause of existence, inexistence, action, inaction, purpose, or lack of purpose.

Comments: Voltaire said, "Define your terms", so did Socrates. The interesting point of this Logic is the different types of definitions. How a person defines things shows something about his level of understanding, viewpoint and what he wants to use a datum for. A clear definition makes a datum more useful and understood.



Descriptive definition: One which 
classifies by characteristics, by 
describing existing states of being.

  Example: 'Building an office building'  
takes good plans, skilled workers, 
cranes, steel and concrete, 
time and money.


Differentiative definition: One which 
compares unlikeness to existing states 
of being or not being.

  Example: 'Building an office building' is like  
building with Lego™ blocks, except you 
use steel, concrete, cranes, many strong 
men and it is 100 times bigger. 
You never use plastic blocks.


Associative definition: One which 
declares likeness to existing 
states of being or not being.

Example: 'Building an office building' is 
much like building an apartment complex. 
  It takes the same skills, the same time and  
the same amount of money as an office 
building of the same size and quality.


Action definition: One which delineates cause 
and potential change of state of being by cause 
of existence, inexistence, action, inaction, 
purpose, or lack of purpose.

Example: 'Building an office building' takes a future 
owner who decides he needs one and can fund the 
project. It takes skilled engineers, who can work 
  out detailed plans to the owner's satisfaction. It has  
to comply with building codes. It takes skilled 
workers and heavy equipment. Finally, for it to be 
successful, it takes activities that can fill the 
competed office building and make lots of money 
to make the project profitable for the owner.

Example of Action Definition from the materials, Education: Real Education is the activity of relaying an idea or an action from one being to another, in such a way as not to make difficult or inhibit the use thereof. It should permit and help the student to be able to think with the subject and develop on the subject. The end-goal of education is application and results.


LOGIC 6. Absolutes are unobtainable.

Comments: Absolute good and absolute evil do not exist. Equally absolute white and absolute black an unobtainable.
An absolute can only exist as an idea, not in the real universe.





   Absolute Black and Absolute White do not exist on a printed   
page or anywhere else. Black consists of 'no light' which is 
impossible in the physical universe. White consists 
of all colors reflected or perceived evenly, which is also 
impossible. No source of light contain the ideal of all colors.


LOGIC 7. Gradient Scales are necessary to the evaluation of problems and their data.

This is the tool of infinity-valued logic: Absolutes are unobtainable. Terms such as good and bad, alive and dead, right and wrong are used only in conjunction with gradient scales. On the scale of right and wrong, everything above zero or center would be more and more right, approaching an infinite rightness, and everything below center would be more and more wrong, approaching infinite wrongness. All things assisting the survival of the survivor are considered to be right for the survivor. All things inhibiting survival from the viewpoint of the survivor can be considered wrong for the survivor. The more a thing assists survival, the more it can be considered right for the survivor; the more a thing or action inhibits survival, the more it is wrong from the viewpoint of the intended survivor.

Corollary -- Any datum has only relative truth.

Corollary -- Truth is relative to environments, experience and truth.





  A gray scale from black to white is a Gradient Scale. We know about  
Gradient Scales from study. That is step-by-step in complexity. When 
observing or classifying things we have to arrange them on a different type 
of Gradient Scale. More and more white, "whiter" than the previous 
one. Absolute White or Absolute Black are unobtainable.


On a personal level Survival is the basic yardstick.
   Good and Bad are defined as a degree of Survival   
and is defined differently by each person according 
to his interests, point of view and Survival. 


LOGIC 8. A datum can be evaluated only by a datum of comparable magnitude.

Comments: This was discussed in "Evaluation of Data".



Antique lamp

New lamp

   You compare similar things to arrange them on a   
Gradient Scale and form a qualified opinion.


LOGIC 9. A datum is as valuable as it has been evaluated.

Comments: The more angles you observe something from the more real it becomes. The more testing of a piece equipment you do the higher your confidence if it all checks out. By keep relating the datum being evaluated to other data the better you get to know it; the more value and certainty the datum has.



Experiment, investigation and experience are ways to evaluate data. 
Evaluation starts in study, but until fully confirmed in practice
the real value isn't established or known. The key question is: 
"Does it work in practice and how?"


LOGIC 10. The value of a datum is established by the amount of alignment (relationship) it imparts to other data.


   Natural Law explains dozens of phenomena.  
Conflicting data are useless until sorted out.


LOGIC 11. The value of a datum or field of data can be established by its degree of assistance in survival or its inhibition to survival.


Newton's Laws made numerous fields
of engineering a reality. They assist
survival in countless ways.


LOGIC 12. The value of a datum or field of data is modified by the viewpoint of the observer.

Comments: The proverb," One man's trash is another man's treasure" is one way to express that.



The Pope considered Galileo's astronomic 
theories a threat to his authority and 
non-survival for the church.


LOGIC 13. Problems are resolved by compartmenting them into areas of similar magnitude and data, comparing them to data already known or partially known, and resolving each area. Data which cannot be known immediately may be resolved by addressing what is known and using its solution to resolve the remainder.

Comments: This is the principle behind Gradient Scales in study. But here it has wide applications. It's a step-by-step method to tackle any complex situation, be it an investigation, research or a messy social situation. Complex problems taken apart this way will get simpler and simpler the more that get known. Finally we can move into previously confused or unknown areas with a level of competence and certainty.



By establishing what is known and sort out the 
data, then double-check all information and 
 step-by-step establish what now can be 
known almost any problem can be solved.


LOGIC 14. Factors introduced into a problem or solution which do not derive from natural law but only authoritarian command aberrate that problem or solution.




Galileo was a good catholic. He also said
the Bible was not a good astronomy textbook. 
The Church wanted total authority in all matters. 
Its total Authority caused the Dark Middle Ages.


LOGIC 15. The introduction of an arbitrary into a problem or solution invites the further introduction of arbitraries into problems and solutions.

Comments: 'Arbitrary' means, a datum or action based on opinion, judgment, whim, personal interests, or taste; not on law or fact. (Latin, Abiter: Judgment). 

This is why you backtrack difficulties in the Study Technology. When you accept an arbitrary in place of a fact or certainty you soon have confusion after confusion. Logic 15 could be said to be the Logic behind the misunderstood tech, skipped gradient tech, and False Data Stripping tech.



   The man starts with the arbitrary,   
"electricity is dangerous". From 
there on he invents unusual 
solutions to overcome this 
and is completely lost.
MUs introduce arbitraries as well.


LOGIC 16. An abstract postulate must be compared to the universe to which it applies and brought into the category of things which can be sensed, measured or experienced in that universe before such postulate can be considered workable.

Comments:  'Abstract' means: Apart from actual substance or experience. An idea, summary, or concept.
(From Latin: 'Abstractus', removed from).
'Postulate' means: To assume the truth or reality of something without proof. 
(From Latin: 'Postulare', to request or demand).
Abstract postulate can be a hypothesis, a plan, a method of resolving a situation. Any planning or formulation of a hypothesis are 'abstract postulates'.

This Logic is the basis for the out-points called "Incorrectly included datum" and "Added inapplicable data". 
The plus-point, "Data in same classification" explains, data from two or more different classes of material should not be introduced into the same class.



Engineers take great care to 
represent things that can be 
 sensed, measured, and 
experienced when 
they make their plans.

An astrologist making predictions about 
   the stock market and politics are using   
factors which cannot be "sensed, 
measured, or experienced" by those 
fields. He is introducing an arbitrary.


LOGIC 17. Those fields which most depend upon authoritative opinion for their data least contain natural law.


When natural law is 
evident, and needs to be 
   understood and followed to   
succeed, authoritative 
opinion is unnecessary. 

Tyrannies often try to take things 
in a different direction than in the 
   best interest of the population 
and has to enforce their 
'authoritative opinions' with force.
(picture: Joseph Stalin)


LOGIC 18. A postulate is as valuable as it is workable.


Newton's Laws of physics 
have wide workability and 
   great value in hundreds of fields.   


LOGIC 19. The workability of a postulate is established by the degree to which it explains existing phenomena already known, by the degree that it predicts new phenomena which when looked for will be found to exist, and by the degree that it does not require that phenomena which do not exist in fact be called into existence for its explanation.


This is how a scientist works. 
   She sets up a hypothesis, tries   
to prove it by experiment. If it 
doesn't work she adjusts her 
theory and tries again. 


LOGIC 20. A science may be considered to be a large body of aligned data which has similarity in application and which has been deduced or induced from basic postulates.


Physics is such a science. It is based on 
physical laws and applies to physical 
problems of construction and mechanics.


LOGIC 21. Mathematics are methods of postulating or resolving real or abstract data in any universe and integrating by symbolization of data, postulates and resolutions.


   In Logic 4 we saw how the human mind works with facsimiles   
to solve problems. Mathematics takes this principle to the 
extreme by using symbols and formulas. Mathematics defines 
the the abstract 'universe' to which it applies. It then defines 
things so they can be expressed numerically. Now you can 
do very precise calculations and predictions in that 
limited 'universe'. It's like a computer program. It lacks human 
emotion and intelligence but is very useful in its special field.


LOGIC 22. The human mind is an observer, postulator, creator and storage place of knowledge.

R. Hubbard's footnote to Logic 22:
The human mind by definition includes the awareness unit of the living organism, the observer, the computer of data, the spirit, the memory storage, the life force and the individual motivator of the living organisms. It is used as distinct from the brain, which can be considered to be motivated by the mind. 



The human mind is:


Creator,   Storage place of knowledge  


The mind is Man's tool for handling data and knowledge. 
   The mind is not the brain. The awareness unit (called thetan)   
is the 'I', the personal identity that is in charge. 
The 'I' motivates the person and uses the brain to run things.

We are here into Standard Clearing Technology, 
where this is discussed, explained and substantiated
'beyond reasonable doubt'. Enough to say here, this is
the traditional view of Man. There are three parts 
to a human being: Mind, Body and Spirit. These three 
elements can be found, sensed, measured experienced.
The model  holds up when life and its 
phenomena are closely examined. 


LOGIC 23. The human mind is a servo-mechanism to any mathematics evolved or employed be the human mind. Postulate -- The human mind and inventions of the human mind are capable of resolving any and all problems which can be sensed, measured, or experienced directly or indirectly.

Corollary -- The human mind is capable of resolving the problem of the human mind.

The borderline of solution of this science lies between why life is surviving and how life is surviving. It is possible to resolve how life is surviving without resolving why life is surviving.

Comments: 'Servo-mechanism' a unit that senses and controls some machinery or device. The machinery or device does the mechanical work of a task (you have 'mind' and 'muscle'). A thermostat controlling a furnace is such a device. 



We have "Mind over Matter" 
  or the mind in capable of resolving 
   anything crated by the human mind.  


The 'human mind' of the auditor 
is capable of resolving the 'human 
mind' of the preclear. This is 
   auditing. It uses Standard Clearing   
Technology to accomplish that.


LOGIC 24. The resolution of philosophical, scientific, and human studies (such as economics, politics, sociology, medicine, criminology, etc.) depends primarily upon the resolution of the problems of the human mind.

Note: The primary step in resolving the broad activities of man could be considered to be the resolving of the activities of the mind itself. Hence, the logics carry to this point and then proceed as axioms concerning the human mind, such axioms being substantiated as relative truths by much newly discovered phenomena. 
The ensuing axioms, from Logic 24, apply no less to the various 'ologies' than they do to de-aberrating or improving the operation of the mind. It should not be thought that the following axioms are devoted to the construction of anything as limited as a therapy, which is only incidental to the resolution of human aberration and such things as psychomatic illnesses. These axioms are capable of such solutions, as has been demonstrated, but such a narrow application would indicate a very narrow scope of view.



If we can free the mind from aberration and teach Man to 
think straight we can handle the fields that depend upon 
   the mind, including ills of society, stress-related illnesses, etc.   


At this point the Logics were continued as Axioms of life. They are known as the Dianetics™ Axioms. There are 194 of those. They are not part of the Study Technology.

It's time to get down to the business of practical study. The next chapter is, "What is a Course?"

(editor's footnote to Logic 22). Thetan: From Theta, a word taken from the Greek symbol or letter: theta, traditional symbol for thought or spirit. The thetan is the individual himself -- not the body or the mind. The thetan is the "I"; one doesn't have or own a thetan; one is a thetan.
(In Logic 22 the thetan is seen as part of the mind; but strictly speaking it is not the same thing. The thetan is the core person, the 'I' or 'me'. The mind are memories, ideas, pictures, etc. the thetan has assembled. This changes over time; the thetan does not. We are well into Standard Clearing Technology here where experimental and clinical proof for this statement is covered).


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